Granulation is a method by which tiny, metal granules are attached to a metal surface without solder in an ornamental pattern. Mesopotamia was the birthplace of this goldsmith technique. It later spread to the southern Mediterranean region but it was the Etruscans that developed the granulation technique to the highest standards of perfection.




Chasing and Repoussé

Chasing and Repoussé are methods of shaping and decorating the front or outside of metal objects by making indentations using punches (tools) and chasing hammers. Metal is embossed by punching and hammering a design from the back, then polishing the front with a chasing hammer, producing a three-dimensional base-relief surface.








This is an example of the techniques in copper. For this piece, I used a chasing hammer, a bowl of hot pitch and repoussé punches. I trace the design onto tracing paper and with a scribe, follow all the lines of the pattern transferred the carbon marks onto the surface of the metal. Only after I had my design on the attached piece of copper to the hot pitch did I start the process of my work.

Enameling and Cloisonné

Enameling is a decorative technique in which a vitreous pigment of metallic oxide is mixed with finely powdered glass and the mixture is applied to the surface of a metal-silver or gold. Cloisonné uses metal wire to outline the design. This glass composition adheres to the metal through fusion under very high temperatures. The color of the enamel and its degree of transparency depend on the glass and the temperature at which the glass melts and coheres to the surface.

This design was born in the Byzantine period, circa the 10th Century. In this sample I combined two techniques: enameling and the cloisonné. After I finished the cloisonné, I filled the design by using the pointed brush tip to apply the red and green enamels, and then fired the piece until it became smooth and shiny, repeating the firing process a few times.


Filigree is an ancient form of delicate, open or backed wirework in gold or silver. The origin of the word filigree can be traced back to 17th-century France as filigree and in Italy as filigrana. Both come from the Latin word filum (thread) and Granum (seed). In ancient times, the filigree technique was used in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Byzantium. In ancient Greece and much later in Hungary and Russia, filigree was often combined with enamel.

My origins are in Russia where filigree is very popular. In this sample I used fine silver wire. By making a pattern and soldering the pieces together, I made this piece as a necklace clasp.


A chain is a series of rings, links, beads or discs of metal or wire, connected with each other. They have been made from earliest times in a great variety of styles and lengths, and used in jewelry for many purposes (e.g. neck chains, necklaces, breast chains, bracelets, watch chains, belts and many others). The basic units of a chain are the links that are joined by weaving. Most modern jewelry chains are machine-made, but the fine ones are hand-made with a much greater variety of designs.

Here are samples of some antique designs, such as a Roman pinched loop chain of the first century A.D. (the bracelet in the upper part of the picture). In this piece, I hammered each link at the ends to give it a three dimensional look. On the second bracelet I used a double loop-in-loop technique that was often used in ancient times in Greek, Etruscan and Roman jewelry.